2nd Semester Period 1

CHAPTER 9- SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY: THE SPECIES APPROACH

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1. Describe the economic, medical, aesthetic, ecological, and ethical significance of wild species. Define bioethics. Distinguish between intrinsic value and instrumental value.
Wild species – Biodiversity is useful to humans and other species. They benefit us with goods and services and scientific information. We appreciate wild species because of their beauty.
Economic value: provide us with food and many goods humans need to survive which keeps the economy going
Medical value: learn a lot from different species for example to help prevent or cure diseases
Aesthetics: we see the beauty in wild species all over the world
Ethical: wild species are becoming extinct and most people don’t see the ethical problems that come with destroying wildlife, but many laws protect wild species
Bioethics – the philosophical study of the ethical controversies brought about by advances in biology and medicine. Includes relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, and politics
Intrinsic value – The value of an organism, species, ecosystem or the earth’s biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of whether it has any usefulness to humans
Instrumental Value – Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth’s biodiversity based on its usefulness to humans

2. Distinguish between background (natural) rate of extinction and mass extinction. Evaluate if an extinction crisis currently exists. Distinguish between endangered species and threatened species. Give three examples of each.
Background extinction – normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in local environment conditions
Mass extinction – a catastrophic, widespread, often global event in which major groups of species are wiped out over a short time compared with normal extinctions
We have extinction present in our world today because so many animals are on the endangered species list and not enough is being done to protect them, so they become extinct.
Endangered species – a wild species with so few individual survivors that the species could soon become extinct in all or most of its natural range
Examples: Indian tiger, black rhino, African elephant
Threatened species – a wild species that is still abundant in its natural range but is likely to become endangered because of a decline in numbers
Examples: grizzly bear, gray wolf, blue whale

3. List nine characteristics that make species extinction prone.

  • low reproductive rate (k strategist)
  • specialized niche
  • narrow distribution (population distribution)
  • feeds at high trophic level (high on food chain)
  • forced migratory patterns
  • rare
  • commercially valuable (wanted by poachers)
  • large territories

4. Describe how species become extinct. List and describe eight ways that humans accelerate the extinction rate.
HIPPO=Habitat destruction or fragmentation, Invasive species (people introduce non native species=competition), Population growth(human pop), Pollution (chemicals damage habitat, kill prey, or harm species' health), Overharvesting (people hunt a species faster than it can repopulate)
Climate change, Rising resource use (pollution, depleting resources, habitat loss to find new sources), Poverty (many countries don't have the money to enforce species protection laws or find alternative energy to limit resource use+pollution or provide incentives for hunters/poachers/fishers to respect the species)

5. List and briefly describe three approaches to protect wild species from extinction. State one advantage particular to the ecosystem approach.

6. Summarize protection offered to wild species by CITES and the Endangered Species Act. List some steps, which would strengthen the Endangered Species Act. Describe one way to decide which species to save.

7. Describe how fish and game populations are managed in order to sustain the population. Analyze the lessons to be learned from the decline of the whaling industry.

8. List three ways individuals can help maintain wild species and preserve biodiversity.

CHAPTER 10 - FOOD, SOIL, AND PEST MANAGEMENT

9. Using Figure 10-3 on p. 208, list four types of agriculture. Compare the inputs of land, labor, capital, and fossil-fuel energy of these systems. Evaluate the green revolution. What were its successes? Its failures? Summarize major consequences of eating meat.
Four types of agriculture exist that differ in their use of inputs and land. Industralized agriculture also known as high input, uses large amounts of inputs such as fossil fuels, pesticides, water, and land to produce their crops. Secondly there is plantation agriculture which is a single form of industrialized agriculture that uses large plantations for individual cash crops. On the other hand, there exist two types of traditional agriculture that are quite often found in more devloping countres. Traditional subsistence agriculture is the production of just enough food for a single family—mostly human labor. Traditional intensive agriculture as well uses human labor but produces more for both the family to live off of and sell for money. The green revolution began to develop in 1950 with the idea focused upon an increase in crop yield. Ways to increase the amount of crops produced per year became a recuring theme that enabled the greeen revolution to occur. A success of it includes the increase in overall available crops yet it fails to consider the effects of increased pesticide and fossil fuel use, used in the production of the goods. -Gabby Cutler

10. Describe the trends in world food production since 1950. Summarize food distribution problems. Define malnutrition and undernutrition. Indicate how many people on Earth suffer from these problems.
Food distribution is a reigning issue in the world today that prevents about 1 in every 6 people in developing countries from receiving enough food. We currently have the capablity to produce enough food for the entire world population yet distribution remains an issue. Malnutrition refers to a person's lack of proper nutrients and calories and Undernutrition refers to the inability of a person to both grow or buy enough food supplies to sustain themsleves. About 825 million people currently have such problems, a majority from developing countries. -Gabby Cutler

11. Describe the problems of soil erosion and desertification. Describe both world and U.S. situations and explain why most people are unaware of this problem. Describe the problems of salinization and waterlogging of soils and how they can be controlled.

Soil erosion is a problem because crops need rich topsoil to grow, and erosion causes a loss in soil fertility. It is also a problem because the eroded soil ends up in aquatic ecosystems; in doing so, it can pollute the water, kill fish, and clog boat channels, reservoirs, and lakes. Desertification, when the productive potential of drylands falls by 10% or more, is a problem because land is much less fertile after drought and topsoil-degrading human activities. Moderate desertification is a problem in much of central U.S. (with severe desertification in the southwest and very severe desertification in much of California.) Worldwide, desertification is a major problem as well; a third of the world's land and 70% of drylands suffer from desertification. Most people are unaware of this problem because they do not live on farms and ranches, which face the frustrations of erosion and desertification.
Salinization is a problem associated with salt buildup in soil; if the salt concentration becomes higher than the crops' range of tolerance, then crops will not be able to grow. Since the salt buildup is a result of salt residues evaporating from irrigation water, salinization can be controlled by reducing irrigation. Of course, it can also be managed simply by switching to salt-tolerant plants. Waterlogging of soils is another problem associated with over-irrigating crops, because the saline water table may rise to the level of the roots of the crops, eventually killing them. Waterlogging can also be avoided by irrigating crops less. - Adam Damon

12. Define soil conservation. List some ways to approach the problem of soil erosion. Be sure to distinguish between conventional-tillage and conservation-tillage farming. Describe techniques to maintain soil fertility. Distinguish between organic and inorganic fertilizers.

Soil conservation is a group of methods used to reduce soil erosion, prevent depletion of soil nutrients, and restore nutrients previously lost by erosion, leaching, and excessive crop harvesting. There are several ways to approach the problem of soil erosion, including: terracing, contour farming, strip farming, cover crops, agroforestry (a.k.a. alley cropping), and shelterbelts (a.k.a. windbreaks). Conventional-tillage farming is the traditional method of tilling the soil (loosening and turning over the topsoil) before planting crops. Conservation tillage disturbs the soil as little as possible while planting crops, to reduce soil erosion. To maintain soil fertility (other than by reducing erosion), fertilizers can be added to the soil. Organic fertilizers come from plant or animal materials (which includes manure and compost), whereas inorganic fertilizers are synthesized in factories. Inorganic fertilizers replace depleted nutrients, but not organic matter. Crop rotation may also be used in fields to prevent nutrient depletion by crops such as corn and tobacco. For example, legumes may be planted every other year to add nitrogen to the soil. - Adam Damon

13. List twelve environmental effects of agriculture. Rank what you feel are the top three. Support your answer.

14. Describe trends in the world fish catch since 1950. Assess the potential for increasing the annual fish catch. Evaluate the potential of fish farming and fish ranching for increasing fish production.

15. Assess the pros and cons of agricultural subsidies and international food relief. Describe strategies that you feel would be most sustainable.

The pros of agricultural subsidies is that they keep food prices artificially low, and that they encourage farmers to stay in business and increase food production. The cons of these subsidies is that if the subsidies are too generous and weather is good, a surplus could occur. This surplus would depress food prices, taking away the incentive of farmers in developing countries to increase domestic production. The most sustainable strategy would be to subsidize farmers who protect the soil, and practice more sustainable agricultural techniques. The pros of international food relief is that people who would otherwise starve, are getting meals to help them survive. The cons is that rather than helping them provide the food for themselves, the developed countries are merely giving it to them. The best strategy would be to promote agriculture in developing countries so they can supply the food for themselves.
Alex de Chatellus

16. What is a pesticide? Distinguish between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum agents.

A pesticide is a chemical use to kill or control populations of unwanted organisms. A broad spectrum agent is toxic to many species, while a narrow spectrum agent is effective against a narrowly defined group of organisms.
Alex de Chatellus
17. Make a case for using pesticides. List three encouraging developments in pesticide production. List the characteristics of the ideal pesticide.

Pesticides can be very useful and good for people for many reasons. Firstly they save humans from disease carrying insects, can keep insect populations down that destroy crops, also every dollar spent on pesticides earns a farmer four times that much in profits. Pesticides work most efficiently compared to other alternatives and when used properly have little effect on human helath. Now developments have been made which made pesticides safer and more effective than in the past and many of the new pesticides require less to be used to be ass effective. The ideal pesticide would kill only a specific pest, not cause genetic resistance in the target organism, disappear or break down into harmless chemicals after killing the insect/pest, and be more cost-effective.
~Lindsey Diamond~

18. Describe the consequences of relying heavily on pesticides. Summarize threats to wildlife and the human population.

A major disadvantage to pesticides is that many of them are synthetic. This means that they can accelerate the development of genetic resistance to pesticides by pest organisms, some pesticides can kill natural predators and parasites that help control the populations of pest species, pesticides do not stay where they are sprayed and can spread easily, some pesticides harm wildlife local, and some pesticides threaten human health in mainly developing countries. Pesticides are responisble for the death of 400,000 people a year.
~Lindsey Diamond~

19. List and briefly describe seven alternative pest management strategies.

CHAPTER 11 - WATER AND WATER POLLUTION

20. Briefly describe Earth’s water supply. Compare amounts of saltwater and fresh water. Compare amounts of frozen fresh water and water available for human use. Define watershed and groundwater.

21. List four causes of water scarcity and five methods to increase water supply. State four ways to prevent unnecessary water waste.

Four causes of water scarcity are dry climate, too many people using the same water supply, poverty (lack of SAFE drinking water), and lack of money to pay for clean water supply. Five methods to increase water supply are building dams, bringing in water from somewhere else, withdrawing groundwater and converting salt water to fresh water, wasting less water, and importing food. Four ways to prevent unnecessary water waste are to waste less water in irrigation, by switching to drip irrigation and soil-moisture detectors, waste less water in industry, homes, and businesses, by xeriscaping. Also, using water more sustainably and charge more for water so people will not waste as much.

22. Define floodplain. Describe the significance of the problem of flooding. List four ways to reduce the problem of flooding. Evaluate the water supply problems of your locality. Do you have too much, not enough, or just right?

A floodplain is the adjacent area next to a normal channel that is used when water in a stream overflow into it during a flood. Each year, floods kill thousands of people and cause tens if billions of dollars in property damage, this natural disaster is so severe that it makes it urgent for us to take action to protect our nation. Four ways to reduce the problem of flooding are controlling river water flows, preserving and restoring wetlands, identifying and managing flood-prone areas, and, if possible, choosing not to live in such areas. Marin County seems to have the right amount of water supply available, they do not have too much where we could cause flooding or other problems but we have enough to provide for the thousands of people who call this area their home.

23. List nine common types of water pollutants and give one example of each. Distinguish between point and non-point sources of pollution. Provide examples.

1. Infectious agents-Bacteria, protozoa. 2. Oxygen-demanding wastes- animal manure, plant debris. 3. Inorganic chemicals- acids,lead. 4. Organic chemicals- oil, gas, plastics. 5. Plant Nutrients- water soluble compounds containing nitrate, phosphate and ammonium. 6. Sediment- soil and silt. 7. Radio active materials- radon, uranium, cesium. 8. Heat- excessive heat
Point Source- discharges pollution at specific locations ex: factories, sewage treatment plants, mines
Non-point sources- are scattered and disfuse and cannot be traced to a single site ex: depostion from the atmosphere and runoff chemicals.
-Alexandra Fried
24. Briefly explain the differences among streams, lakes, groundwater, and oceans that vary in their vulnerability to pollution. Draw an oxygen sag curve to illustrate what happens to dissolved oxygen levels in streams below points where degradable oxygen-demanding wastes are added.
Streams- in developing countries are becoming a serious problem because most drinking water comes from streams and they don't treat that water
Lakes- Dilution of pollution is less effective in lakes because lakes don't move and they contian stratified layers that don't mix often.
Groundwater- it cannot cleanse itself, it disperses the contamination it doesn't dilute it.
Oceans- are better at dispersing and breaking down large quantities of degradable pollutants.
Oxygen sag curve is located on p.256
-Alexandra Fried

25. Define cultural eutrophication. List three ways to reduce cultural eutrophication. Compare the effectiveness of pollution control and pollution prevention strategies.
Cultural eutrophication is when human activities lead to the eutrophication of lakes. In eutrophication, nitrates and phosphates cause oxygen depletion and therefore algae blocks sunlight and plants in the bottom of the water source dies. To reduce cultural eutrophication, we can set higher standards for runoff, pump oxygen in lakes to not allow oxygen depletion, and we could clean up nitrate and phosphate levels in the water sourcdes. Pollution control is a lot more efficient than pollution cleanup. It is easier to prevent cultural eutrophication than clean up the nitrate and phosphate levels in the water sources.

26. Describe at least three strategies to reduce nonpoint-source pollution. Briefly describe the Clean Water Act. State ways it could be strengthened.
To reduce nonpoint-source pollution, we can set higher standards for runoff, we can make factories have cleaner output of waste, and we can cleanup after nonpoint sources. The Clean Water Act sets regulations for the cleansiness of water and requires factories to only dispose of clean waste. It could be strengthened because with it intact, we still have lakes and steams that are too pollutied for people to swim or fish in.

27. Briefly describe and distinguish among primary, secondary, and advanced sewage treatment. Summarize one natural approach to water purification. Describe how drinking water is protected and purified.

Primary Treatment- Primary treatment removes the materials that can be easily collected from the raw wastewater and disposed of. The typical materials that are removed during primary treatment include fats, oils, and greases sand, gravels and rocks. This involves using screens and grit tanks.
Secondary Treatment- a biological process in which aerobic bacteria remove as muh as 90% of dissolved and biodegradable, oxygen–demanding organic wastes. This ivolves using an aeration tank, a settling tank, and a chlorine disinfection tank.
Advanced Treatment- This is the final stage of treatment in order to make the water completely clean before it is discharged into the water system. Different plants have different levels of advanced treatment, but many processes range from chlorination to constructing wetlands.
Natural Water Purification- Have developed ways to treat sewage through an ecological process. One way is to consturct artificial wetlands to treat sewage as a low-tech, low cost alternitave to expensive treatment plants.
Drinking Water Protected and Purified- Developed countries have laws that set standards for drinking water quality, but developing don’t. Areas in developed may store in in a reservoir to impove clarity and taste. Then it is pumped to purification plant and treated to meet standards. US has Clean Water Act to protect the water

28. List things individuals can do to maintain water supply and quality.
-Fertilize garden with compost or manure instead of inorganic fertilizer
- Minimize use of pesticides
- Grow or buy organiz foods
- Compost food waste
- Use your water in moderation
-Sara Helvestine

CHAPTER 12 - GEOLOGY AND NONRENEWABLE MINERALS

29. Briefly describe the layers of the Earth’s interior. Distinguish three different tectonic plate boundaries and the geologic features often found at each. Explain how this knowledge is significant for understanding mineral deposits and evolution.

30. List and define three broad classes of rock. Briefly describe the rock cycle and indicate interrelationships among these classes.

31. Distinguish between surface and subsurface mining. Briefly describe three types of surface mining.

Surface mining- removing soil, subsoil, and other strata, and then extracting a mineral deposit found fairly close to the earth’s surface
3 types:
1) open-pit mining- machines dig holes and remove ores such as iron and copper
2) dredging- chain buckets and draglines scrape up under-water mineral deposits
3) strip mining- surface mining in which bulldozers, power shovels, or stripping wheels remove the overburden in strips

Subsurface mining- extraction of a metal ore or fuel resource such as coal from a deep underground deposit

32. Distinguish between mineral resources and mineral reserves. Draw a hypothetical depletion curve. Project how this curve would be affected by the following changes in assumptions: (a) recycling of the resource is increased, (b) discoveries of new deposits of the resource are made, (c) prices rise sharply, (d) a substitute for the resource is found.

Mineral resource- concentrations of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material, in or on the earth’s crust, in such form and amount that its extraction and conversion into useful materials or items is currently or potentially profitable (metallic or nonmetallic resources)

Mineral reserve- minerals that have been identified and from which a usable mineral can be extracted profitably at present prices with current mining technology

Hypothetical depletion curve= p. 280 in text

a) would increase reserves and reuse present resources so curve is more flat
b) flatten out even more with new discoveries
c) rising prices leads to steeper bell curve
d) substitute would lead to a more balanced and flat curve

33. Summarize the environmental impacts of extracting, processing, and using mineral resources. Evaluate the impact of the U.S. 1872 Mining Law.The mining, processing, and use of mineral resources take enormous amounts of energy and often cause land disturbance, soil erosion, and air and water pollution. Another problem is collapse of land above underground mines, this subsidence can cause many problems with the land. Mining can also result in emission of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere, and wildlife and humans can be exposed to this. The 1872 Mining Law allows mining interests to pay no royalties to taxpayers for hard-rock minerals they remove.

CHAPTER 13 - ENERGY

34. How much of the total energy used to heat the Earth and Earth’s buildings comes from commercial energy? List five key questions to ask about each energy alternative to evaluate energy resources. Define net energy and state its significance in evaluating energy resources.Commercial energy sold in the marketplace makes up 1% of the energy we use to supplement the earth’s direct input of solar energy. Net energy is the total amount fo energy available from an energy resource minus the energy needed to find, extract, process, and get that energy to consumers.Questions to ask about each energy alternative:

1- How much of the energy resource is likelky to be available in the near future (15-25 yrs) and the long term (25-50 yrs)?

2- What is the net energy yield for the resource?

3- How much will it cost to develop, phase in, and use the resource?

4- What government research and development subsidies and tax breaks will be used to help develop the resource?

5- How will dependence on the resource affect national and global economic and military security?

6- How vulnerable is the resource to terrorism?

7- How will extracting, transporting, and using the resource affect the environment, human health, and the earths climate? Should these harmful costs be included in the market price of each energy resource through a combination of taxes and phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies?

35. List the advantages and disadvantages of using conventional oil, oil from oil shale, and oil from tar sands to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles.

For conventional oil, there is an ample supply, it is low in cost (with huge subsidies), it is easily transported within and between countries, very little land is needed to obtain it, the technology is well developed, and and efficient distribution system is already in place. The disadvantages are that we'll have to find a substitute withing 50 years, the artificially low price encourages waste and discourages searching for alternatives, it produces air pollution when burned, and it is a moderate water pollutant.
Heavy oils from oil shale and oil sand, on the other hand, have a moderate cost (oil sand), there are large potential supplies (especially of oil sands in Canada), it is easily transported between countries, there is a distribution system already in place, and the technology is well developed. However, the oil sands and oil shales have a high cost (oil shale), they have a low net energy yield, a large amount of water is need for processing, it produces severe land disruption from surface mining, it produces water pollution from mining residues, and it produces air pollution when burned.
Overall, conventional oil is better to use for space and water heating, to produce electricity, and propel vehicles because of the higher net energy yield, low cost, and moderate (compared to high) water pollution.

36. Distinguish among natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas, and synthetic natural gas. List the advantages and disadvantages of using natural gas as an energy source.

Natural gas is a mixture of 50-90% by volume of methane. It also contains smaller amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethan, propane, and butane, along with small amounts of highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. There is an ample supply of natural gas (125 years), it has a high net energy yield, it has a low cost (with huge subsidies), it produces less air pollution than other fossil fuels, it has a moderate environmental impact, it is easily transported by pipeling, it has a low land use, and it is a good fuel for fuel cells and gas turbines. However, it is a nonrenewable resource that releases carbon dioxide when burned, it can leak from pipes, it is difficult to transfer from one country to another, it is shipped across the ocean as highly explosive LNG (liquefied natural gas), it is sometimes burned off and wasted at wells because of its low price, and it requires pipelines.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is what natural gas can be converted to at a very low temperature. It is when natural gas is a liquid that it can be transported across the sea in refrigerated tankers. It is highly explosive.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is what propane and butane gases are converted to when removed from a natural gas field. It is stored in pressurized tanks and is used mostly in rural areas.
Synthetic natural gas (SNG) is solid coal that has been converted to a gas by coal gasification. It produces less air pollution that solid coal when burned.

37. List and describe three types of coal. Indicate which is preferred for burning and which is most available. List and briefly describe three methods for extracting coal. List advantages and disadvantages of using coal as a fuel source.

Lignite: (brown coal) low heat content, low sulfur content, limited supplies in most areas
Bituminous: (soft coal) extensively used as a fuel b/c of its high heat content and large supplies. normally has a high sulfer content
Anthracite: (hard coal) highly desirable fuel b/c of its high heat content and low sulfur content: supplies are limited in most areas.

Methods of Coal Extraction

1. Contour strip mining- used on hilly/mountain terrain. Earth mover removes overburden, power shovel cuts series of terraces on side of hill, power shovel extracts coal
2. Subsurface mining- removes coal/metal ores that are too deep to be extracted by surface mining. Dig deep into vertical shaft, blast subsurface tunnels, and chambers to reach the deposit. Use machinery to remove ore or coal and to transport to surface. (disrupts <1/10 as much land as surface mining)
3. Surface mining- mechanized equipment strips away overburden of soil. Surface mining extracts around 60% coal by weight used in the USA.
Advantages of Using Coal
- ample supplies
- high net energy yield
- low cost with huge subsides
- well developed mining/combustion technique
- air pollution can be reduced with technology
Disadvantages
- high environmental impact
- sever land disturbance, water and air pollution
- high land use(mining)
- threat to human health
- high co2 emission when burned
- Releases radioactive particles/toxic mercury into air.

Kathleen Manza

38. Briefly describe the components of a conventional nuclear reactor. List advantages and disadvantages of using conventional nuclear fission to create electricity. Be sure to consider the whole nuclear fuel cycle, including disposal of radioactive wastes, safety and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and the potential for proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Components of a Conventional Nuclear Reactor
-isotopes of uranium and plutonium undergo controlled nuclear fission. Resulting heat produces steam spins turbines to generate electricity
Light-water reactors- produce 85% world’s nuclear generated energy
Control rods- move in/out of reactor to absorb neutrons, regulate fission
Coolant (water) - circulates through core to remove heat from fuel rods so no melting occurs
Containment vessel-strong and thick walls surround reactor core keeping radioactive materials from escaping into environment.
Advantages
-large fuel supply
-Low environmental impact (w/o accidents)
-moderate land disruption
-emits 1/6 Co2 as coal
-low risk accidents b/c multiple safety systems (except in 35, poorly designed, Soviet Union and Eastern Europe accidents)
Disadvantages
-high cost even w/ large subsidies
-low net energy yield
-high environmental impact (w/ accidents)
- Catastrophic accidents (Chernobyl)
-no widely acceptable solution for long term storage of radioactive wastes and decommissioning
-subject to terrorist attacks
-spreads technology for building nuclear weapons

Kathleen Manza

39. Summarize current thinking about disposal of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes.
Currently, highly radioactive spent fuel rods are stored on-site in water-filled polls or dry casks. However, they are not well sealed and are vulnerable to terrorist attack. In the long term, they hope to send radioactive wastes to an underground facility for more long-term storage. However, there is no method of disposal that is 100% safe. The most accepted methods include burying it deep underground, shooting it into space or the sun, burying it under ice sheets, dumping into descending zones of the ocean, or change it into less harmful isotopes.
~Kristina Parsons~

40. List and briefly describe three ways to decommission a nuclear power plant. List findings of a 1987 commission, which bring into question the credibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to safeguard the nuclear power industry.
1. dismantle the plant after it closes and store its large volume of highly radioactive materials in a high-level, nuclear waste storage facility
2. Install a physical barrier around the plant and set up full-time security for 30-100 years before the plant is dismantled
3. Enclose the entire plant in a tomb that must last and be monitored for several thousand years.
There are 228 commercial reactors in the world that are scheduled to be retired by 2012, but the NRC has approved extending them for a while even tho it could increase the risk of a major nuclear accident.
~Kristina Parsons~

41. Describe the potential use of breeder nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as energy sources.

42. List the advantages and disadvantages of improving energy efficiency so that we do more with less. Define life cycle cost and cogeneration and describe their potential for saving energy. Describe changes that can be made in industry, transportation, buildings, lights, and appliances and that would improve energy efficiency.

43. List the advantages and disadvantages of using direct solar energy to heat air and water for buildings. Distinguish between active and passive solar heating. Compare the following solar technologies and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each: solar power tower, solar thermal plant, and optical solar concentrator.

44. List the advantages and disadvantages of using water in the forms of hydropower, tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal currents, and solar ponds to produce electricity.

45. List the advantages and disadvantages of using wind to produce electricity.

46. List the advantages and disadvantages of using biomass to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles. Consider burning wood, agricultural wastes, and urban wastes as well as conversion of biomass to biofuels.

47. List the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen gas as an energy source. Why is hydrogen considered a fuel and not an energy source? Describe constraints to a solar-hydrogen revolution.

Advantages: Can be produced from water, low environmental impact, renewable if produced from renewable energy resources, no CO2 emissions if produced from water, good substitute for oil, competitive price, easier to store than electricity, safer than gasoline and natural gas, nontoxic, high efficiency in fuel cells.

Disadvantages: Not found in nature, energy is needed to produce fuel, negative net energy, co2 emissions if produced from carbon-containing compounds, nonrenewable if generated by fossil fuels or nuclear power, high costs, will take 25-50 years to phase in, short driving range for current fuel-cell cars, no fuel distribution system in place, excessive h2 leaks may deplete ozone in the atmosphere.

When hydrogen gas burns in air or in fuel cells it combines with oxygen gas to produce nonpolluting water vapor. Widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel would eliminate most of our current air pollution problems. Hydrogen is considered a fuel not an energy source because it takes energy to produce hydrogen from water and organic compounds. in other words, hydrogen is not a source of energy-it is a fuel produced by using energy.

A potential solar-hydrogen revolution would be with both of these sources of energy could become predominantly used. Due to high costs, though, it is unlikely this will take place in the near future. So far they are not subsidized by the government, unlike fossil-fuel based energy sources.

Zoe Vournas

48. List the advantages and disadvantages of using geothermal energy for space heating, high-temperature industrial heating, and electricity production.

Geothermal energy- consists of heat stored in soil, underground rocks, and fluids in earth's mantle

As electricity production…
Advantages: Very high efficiency, moderate net energy at accessible site, lower co2 emissions than fossil fuels, low cost at favorable sites, low land use, low land disturbance, moderate environmental impact.

Disadvantages: Scarcity of suitable sites, depleted if used too rapidly, co2 emissions, moderate to high local air pollution, noise and odor, cost too high except at the most concentrated and accessible sources.

For space heating and high-temperature industrial heating-
Geothermal heat pumps can exploit the difference between underground and surface temperature in most places and use pipes and ducts to heat or col a building. These devices extract heat from the earth in the winter and in the summer store heat removed from a house in the earth. It is a very efficient and cost-effective way to heat or cool a space. Another way to heat or cool a building is through geothermal exchange. buried pipes filled with a fluid move heat in or out of the ground or from nearby bodies of water. In the winter heat is removed from the fluid in the buried pipes and blown through house ducts. In summer this process is reversed.

According to the EPA geothermal exchange is the most energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmental clean way to heat or cool a building.

Zoe Vournas
49. Analyze the interactions of economic policy and energy resources. In particular consider the results of using free-market competition, keeping energy prices low, and keeping energy prices high.
By keeping energy prices artificially low, the government can encourage the use of select energy resources. This can be done using subsidies and tax bracts. This approach has been employed to stimulate the development and use of fossil fuels and nuclear power. So far, it has created an uneven economic playing field that encourages energy waste and the depletion of nonrenewable resources (fossil fuels).
By keeping energy prices artificially high, the government can discourage the use of a particular resource. This can be done by eliminating tax breaks and subsidies, or adding taxes to its use. This approach will increase government revenues, encourage energy efficiency, reduce dependence on imported energy and decrease reliance and use of an energy resource with a limited supply.
Mallory Wheaton

50. List four ways that the United States could build a more sustainable energy future.
To build a more sustainable energy future the U.S. should improve energy efficiency (by increasing fuel-efficiency standards, offering tax credits for energy efficiency, reduce demand for electricity, increase energy efficiency research). Also, the U.S. should switch to more renewable energy, and reduce pollution and health risk (cut coal use by 50% by 2050, phase out coal subsidies, phase out nuclear power and subsidies)
Mallory Wheaton

CHAPTER 14 -RISK, HUMAN HEALTH, AND TOXICOLOGY

51. List four classes of common hazards and give two examples of each. List seven cultural hazards in order of most to least hazardous.

There are classes of common hazards to humans. They are cultural hazards (smoking, unsafe working conditions, etc.), Biological hazards (bacteria, viruses, parasites), Chemical hazards (chemicals in air, water, soil, and food) and physical hazards (fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, tornadoes, and hurricanes.) In order from most hazardous to least hazardous: smoking, poverty, accidents, alcohol use, suicides, homicides, illegal drug use.

52. Define toxicology. List three types of studies that contribute to our knowledge of toxicology. Distinguish between acute and chronic effects; bioaccumulation and biomagnification.

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on the health of a living organism. One way we test how chemicals will effect humans is to test the chemicals on animals in labs. Another way is to estimate the toxicity based on previous accounts where humans were exposed to chemicals. Last way is to use computer models to determine how a chemical will affect humans. Acute effects are those that occur immediately after an exposure (dizziness, death.) Chronic effects are long term consequences to exposures, such as liver damage. Biomagnification is the increase in concentration of chemicals in organisms at successively higher trophic levels. Bioaccumulation is an increase in the concentration of a chemical in specific organs or tissues at a higher level than normally expected.

53. Draw a dose-response curve and explain how it can be used. Draw graphs of two hypothetical dose-response curves: no threshold and threshold.

Dose Response Curve Definition- is a simple X-Y graph relating the magnitude of the stressor to the response of the receptor. The response is usually death but other effects can be studied.
example of graph: http://dels.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/43_4/43_4_234f2.gif

54. Define epidemiology. Summarize limits of toxicological research.
Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine.

55. List five principal types of chemical hazards and give two examples of each.

56. Distinguish between transmissible and nontransmissible diseases. Explain which occurs most in developing countries and which occurs most in developed countries. Relate an epidemiologic transition to a demographic transition.

57. Describe how the hazards of smoking and sexually transmitted diseases could be reduced in the United States. List diet changes that can help prevent cancer.

58. Define risk analysis. Summarize its limitations. Compare technology reliability to human reliability. Distinguish between risk-benefit analysis and risk assessment. List seven questions risk assessors might ask.

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