2nd Semester Period 3


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1. Describe the economic, medical, aesthetic, ecological, and ethical significance of wild species. Define bioethics. Distinguish between intrinsic value and instrumental value.

2. Distinguish between background (natural) rate of extinction and mass extinction. Evaluate if an extinction crisis currently exists. Distinguish between endangered species and threatened species. Give three examples of each.

3. List nine characteristics that make species extinction prone.

4. Describe how species become extinct. List and describe eight ways that humans accelerate the extinction rate.

5. List and briefly describe three approaches to protect wild species from extinction. State one advantage particular to the ecosystem approach.
Sanctuary Approach - Involves making important migration and breeding areas into national parks and protected areas.Us has 542 federal refugees, but many are not in great shape. Legal approach - Involves creating legislation which protects wild species. Creates laws saying cannot be hunted or traded, but because of weak enforcment, they're often disobeyed. some include CITES, Lacey Act, and the ESA, all making it illegal to either transport or have alive or dead wild animals without permits. The ecosystem approach - involves protecting and rehabilitating the biodiversity, land, and forests to protect species. This approach is good because instead of making new areas for species, we should protect and revitalize the current ones so that the least amount of species are disturbed, this will maintain biodiversity as a whole better, and allow us to become more sustainable by protecting and using forests more efficiently. Jake B.

6. Summarize protection offered to wild species by CITES and the Endangered Species Act. List some steps, which would strengthen the Endangered Species Act. Describe one way to decide which species to save.
Cites - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1975) Lists 900 species which connot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products since they are in danger of extinction. Also restricts international trade of 29,000 other species since they are at risk of becoming threatened. ESA - Endangered species act of 1973. Was created to identify and legally protect endangered species in the US and abroad.Under this act, Federal agencies Can't carry out projects that would harm threatened or endangered species. Americans can't sell or trade products made from these species either. To make the ESA stronger, some scientists suggest increasing its currently small funding, developing the recovery plans more quickly, and once a species is added to the list, establish a core of its survival habitat to protect, enough to support the species from up to 50 years. Jake B.

7. Describe how fish and game populations are managed in order to sustain the population. Analyze the lessons to be learned from the decline of the whaling industry.
According to most conservation biologist the Endangered Species act should be used to develop a new system to protect and sustain the country's biodiversity. Also the endangered species act would develop recovery plans more quickly. Find out what species and ecosystems the country has. Locate and protect the most endangered ecosystems and species. Provide private landowners who agree to help protect specific endangered ecosytems with significant financial incentives and technical help. Greatly increase the meager funding for implementing the act.

The declining whale industry resulted in the tragedy of commons scenario in which the whales were over hunted because they appeared to be an everlasting resource and species and therefore some whale species have become commercially extinct.
(Zack Bussin)

8. List three ways individuals can help maintain wild species and preserve biodiversity.
1) Set up wildlife refuges and other protected areas
2) Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Farms
3) Zoos and Aquariums
(Zack Bussin)


9. Using Figure 10-3 on p. 208, list four types of agriculture. Compare the inputs of land, labor, capital, and fossil-fuel energy of these systems. Evaluate the green revolution. What were its successes? Its failures? Summarize major consequences of eating meat.

10. Describe the trends in world food production since 1950. Summarize food distribution problems. Define malnutrition and undernutrition. Indicate how many people on Earth suffer from these problems.

11. Describe the problems of soil erosion and desertification. Describe both world and U.S. situations and explain why most people are unaware of this problem. Describe the problems of salinization and waterlogging of soils and how they can be controlled.

12. Define soil conservation. List some ways to approach the problem of soil erosion. Be sure to distinguish between conventional-tillage and conservation-tillage farming. Describe techniques to maintain soil fertility. Distinguish between organic and inorganic fertilizers.

13. List twelve environmental effects of agriculture. Rank what you feel are the top three. Support your answer.

14. Describe trends in the world fish catch since 1950. Assess the potential for increasing the annual fish catch. Evaluate the potential of fish farming and fish ranching for increasing fish production.

15. Assess the pros and cons of agricultural subsidies and international food relief. Describe strategies that you feel would be most sustainable.

16. What is a pesticide? Distinguish between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum agents.
A pesticide is something that kills a pest or unwanted organism. A broad-spectrum agent is something that will kill many different types of pests, while a narrow spectrum agent is a pesticide that will only harm the intended victim.
17. Make a case for using pesticides. List three encouraging developments in pesticide production. List the characteristics of the ideal pesticide.
Pesticides are useful because they allow farmers to increase their yields of their crops. Pesticides kill what pests eat the crop or harm the yield.Pesticides also kill insects or pests that may carry diseases and may save lives. Over the years, pesticides have become safer. Pesticides now are technologically advanced enough to only target the intended organisms. They are also able to kill the pest in smaller doses, meaning that animals which eat the pest will not be harmed, or at least not dibilitating. The ideal characteristic of a pesticide would be a pesticide that does not harm the environment, and will only harm the targeted organism. The pesticide should breakdown or become malignant quickly after killing the pest.

18. Describe the consequences of relying heavily on pesticides. Summarize threats to wildlife and the human population.

19. List and briefly describe seven alternative pest management strategies.

  • cultivation practices: designed to fake out pest species (ex. crop rotations)
  • genetic engineering: speeds up the develpment of pest- and desease-resistant crop strains
  • biological control: importing natural predators, parasites, and disease-causing bacteria and viruses to help regulate pest populations
  • sex attractants: (pheromones) can lure pests into traps or attract their natural predators into crop fields
  • hormones: disrupt an insect's normal life cycle, thus, preventing it from reaching maturity and reproducing
  • spraying them with hot water: equal to that of using chemical pesticides

(alison gossel)


20. Briefly describe Earth’s water supply. Compare amounts of saltwater and fresh water. Compare amounts of frozen fresh water and water available for human use. Define watershed and groundwater.
-only 2.6% of world's water is fresh water and the remaining 97.4% is made up of oceans and saline lakes
-and only .014% of the freshwater is accessible (.592% groundwater and 1.984 ice caps and glaciers)
-watershed:the region from which surface water drains into a river, lake, wetland, or other body of water
-groundwater: the precipitation that infiltrates the ground and percolates downward through voids in soil and rock. one of our most important sources of freshwater.
(alison gossel)
21. List four causes of water scarcity and five methods to increase water supply. State four ways to prevent unnecessary water waste.
Water Scarcity: dry climate, too many people using reliable supply of water, hydrological poverty (access to water)
Increase Water Supply: build dams/resevoirs to release as needed, convert salt water to fresh water (desalination), reduce water waste, import food to reduce irrigation needs
Prevent Unnecessary Water Waste charge more for water, decreasing gov. subsidies to improve efficiency of water use, use drip irrigation, form agreements between counties sharing surface water resources, slowing population growth
Morgan Green

22. Define floodplain. Describe the significance of the problem of flooding. List four ways to reduce the problem of flooding. Evaluate the water supply problems of your locality. Do you have too much, not enough, or just right?

Floodplain: the area that water in a stream spills into when it's normal channel overflows. Floodplains provide natural erosion control, maintain high water quality, and recharge groundwater. They provide the most productive farmlands.
Problems: people settle on floodplains (fertile soil, ample water, flat land..etc) and each year thousands are killed and ten billion dollars of property damage occurs due to floods.
Human Increase Flood Problems: removal of water-absorbing vegetation, draining wetlands, living on floodplains, paving/building on floodplains
Solutions to Reduce Problems of Floodplaining:straighten/deepen streams (called channelization), build levees or floodwalls, build dams, preserve existing wetlands
Localy:we can think carefully about where we choose to live
Morgan Green
23. List nine common types of water pollutants and give one example of each. Distinguish between point and non-point sources of pollution. Provide examples.

Water pollution is any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that harms living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses. Common types of water pollutants are:
-infectious agents ex/ bacteria, viruses, parasitic worms
-oxygen-demanding wastes ex/ organic waste such as animal manure
-inorganic chemicals ex/ water soluable acids or compounds of toxic metals
-organic chemicals ex/ oil, gasoline, plastic
-plant nutrients ex/ water-soluable compounds containing nitrate, phosphate, and ammonium
-sediment ex/ soil, silt
-radioactive materials ex/ radioactive isotopes of iodine, radon, or uranium
-heat (thermal pollution) ex/ excessive heat
Point sources discharge pollutants at specific locations through drain pipes, ditches or sewage lines into bodies of water like factories, sewag treatment plants, underground mines, and oil tankers. Nonpoint sources are scattered and diffused and cannot be traced by any singe site of discharge like deposition from the atmosphere.
(Hannah G.)

24. Briefly explain the differences among streams, lakes, groundwater, and oceans that vary in their vulnerability to pollution. Draw an oxygen sag curve to illustrate what happens to dissolved oxygen levels in streams below points where degradable oxygen-demanding wastes are added.

Flowing streams can recover from a moderate level of degradable water pollutants if their flows are not reduced. Dilution of pollutants in lakes is less effective than in most streams because most lake water is not mixed well and has a little flow. Various human activities can overload lakes with plant nutrients, which decreases dissolved oxygen and kill some aquatic species. Groundwater can become contaminated with a variety of chemicals because it cannot effectively cleanse itself and dilute and disperse pollutants. Leaks from chemicals storage ponds, underground storage tanks, piping used to inject hazardous waste underground, and seepage of agricultural fertilizers can contaminate groundwater. Pollutants often dilute wuickly in the ocean but preventing or reducing the flow of pollution from land and from streams emptying into the ocean is the key to protecting the oceans.
(Hannah G.)

Groundwater can easily become contaminated because it has low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and smaller populations of decomposing bacteria.
(Sophia K)

25. Define cultural eutrophication. List three ways to reduce cultural eutrophication. Compare the effectiveness of pollution control and pollution prevention strategies.

Cultural eutrophication: human activities can greatly accelerate the input of plant nutrients to a lake. Nitrate and phosphate containing effluents mostly cause this change and come from runoff from farmland, feedlots, urban areas, and mining sites. This causes algae blooms and dense colonies of plant life. This decreases lake productivity and fish life because of the decrease of input from solar energy.
Prevention: use advanced (but expensive) waste treatment to remove nitrates and phosphates before wastewater enters lakes, ban or limit use of phosphates in household detergents, soil conservation and landuse control.
Cleanup: mechanically remove excess weeds, control plant growth with herbicides, and pump air through lakes to prevent oxygen depletion.
Pollution prevention is more effective and usually cheaper in the long run than cleanup.
(Sophia Kirk)

26. Describe at least three strategies to reduce nonpoint-source pollution. Briefly describe the Clean Water Act. State ways it could be strengthened.

Farmers can reduce soil erosion by keeping cropland covered wthi vegetation, reforesting critical watersheds, reduce the amount of fertilizer that runs off into surface waters and leaches into aquifers by using slow-release fertilizer, planting buffer zones of vegetation near surface water, and applying pesticides only when needed. pg. 263
Clean Water Act: sets standards for allowed levels of key water pollutants and requires polluters to get permits limiting how much of the various pollutants they can discharge into aquatic systems. This act is poorly enforced or do not exist in developing countries.
(Sophia Kirk)

27. Briefly describe and distinguish among primary, secondary, and advanced sewage treatment. Summarize one natural approach to water purification. Describe how drinking water is protected and purified.
The primary sewage is a physical process that uses screans and a grit tank to remove large suspended objects.
The secondary sewage is a biological process where aeorobic bacteria remove waste.
The advanced sewage is a combination of both primary and secondary.
Natural approaches are man man sewage systems that purify water.
Drinking water is protected and purified in a acquifers, and transported through pipes that are regulated. Centralized water treatment plants can provide safe drinking water.

28. List things individuals can do to maintain water supply and quality.

Individuals maintain water supply and quality by preserving water! We can also join grassroots organizations to support and controll preventing and reducing water pollution. We can find substitutes for toxic pollutants. We can reduce nonpoint runoff. We can reduce resource waste.

(Rana Jabri)


29. Briefly describe the layers of the Earth’s interior. Distinguish three different tectonic plate boundaries and the geologic features often found at each. Explain how this knowledge is significant for understanding mineral deposits and evolution.

30. List and define three broad classes of rock. Briefly describe the rock cycle and indicate interrelationships among these classes.

31. Distinguish between surface and subsurface mining. Briefly describe three types of surface mining.

In surface mining, mechanized equipment strips away the overburden of soil and rock and usually discards it as waste material called spoils. This extracts about 90 percent of the non-fuel mineral and rock resources and 60 percent of the coal that are used in the U.S. Subsurface mining removes coal and metal ores that are too deep to be extracted by surface mining. Miners dig a deep vertical shaft, blast subsurface tunnels and chambers to reach the deposit, and use machinery to remove the ore or coal and transport it to he surface.
1. Open pit mining is where machines dig holes and remove ores, sand, gravel, and stone
2. Area strip mining may be used in flat terrain. An earthmover stripes away the overburden and a power shovel digsd a cut to remove the mineral deposits. The trench is filled with overburden and a new cut is made parallel to the previous one. This is repeated.
3. Contour strip mining is used on mountainous terrain. A power shovel cuts a series of terraces into the side of a hill. An earthmover removes the overburden, a power shovel extracts the coal, and then the overburden from each new terraces is dumped onto the one below.
4. Mountaintop removal is where explosives and draglines remove the tops of mountains to reach coal deposits.—Paddy Marshall

32. Distinguish between mineral resources and mineral reserves. Draw a hypothetical depletion curve. Project how this curve would be affected by the following changes in assumptions: (a) recycling of the resource is increased, (b) discoveries of new deposits of the resource are made, (c) prices rise sharply, (d) a substitute for the resource is found.

Mineral resources are nonrenewable resources that we can extract from the earth’s crust. Mineral reserves are areas where a given resource is discovered in large quantities.
A depletion curve is a parabolic curve, whose height and length depend on a number of factors. If recycling is high, the curve becomes flatter, meaning its depletion time increases, and its production slows down. If new deposits are discovered, the curve is also flattened out, meaning depletion time increases, and production slows down. Lastly, if prices rise sharply, the curve is stretched taller. This means production increases to match the increased demand, meaning depletion time is shorter. If a substitute for the resource is found, the curve is flattened out.—Paddy Marshall

33. Summarize the environmental impacts of extracting, processing, and using mineral resources. Evaluate the impact of the U.S. 1872 Mining Law.

Extracting: Disturbed land,; mining accidents; health hazards, mine waste dumping, oil spills and blowouts; noise; ugliness; heat
Processing: solid waste; radioactive material; air, water, and soil pollution; noise; safety and health hazards; ugliness; heat
Use: noise, ugliness; thermal water pollution; pollution of air, water, and soil; solid and radioactive wastes; safety and health hazards; heat
US Mining Law: The law allows United States miner companies to buy land at 1872 prices, which in effect, allows mining companies to purchase large amounts of land and disrupt the environment in large proportions. Because the land is so cheap, companies are not as careful with cleaning up their pollution; therefore, the law promotes waste pollution —Ryan McClain


34. How much of the total energy used to heat the Earth and Earth’s buildings comes from commercial energy? List five key questions to ask about each energy alternative to evaluate energy resources. Define net energy and state its significance in evaluating energy resources.

1% of the total energy used to heat the Earth and Earth's buildings comes from commercial energy.
Five key alternative energy questions:
How much of the energy resource is likely to be available in the near future and the long term (25-50 years)? / What is the net energy yield for the resource? / How much will it cost to develop, phase in, and use the resource? / What government research and development subsidies and tax breaks will be used to help develop the resource? / How vulnerable is the resource to terrorism?
Net energy—the usable amount of high-quality energy available from a given quantity of an energy resource (the total amount of energy available from an energy resource minus the energy needed to find, extract, process, and transport. Significant in knowing how efficient/valuable a resource is and if it is worth it to process and utilize it —Ryan McClain

35. List the advantages and disadvantages of using conventional oil, oil from oil shale, and oil from tar sands to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles.

conventional oil:
Conventional oil is by far the most exploited and researched source of oil today. This means the technology for acquiring it is much more advanced so it is much easier and more cost effective to acquire. The price is also very low in comparison to the alternatives and there are large government subsides in place to lower the cost. It uses the least land, has the highest net energy yeild and there is also a very effective distribution system in place.
The disadvantages are that conventional oil is expected to run out within the next 50 years, the prices are relatively low due to the amount in circulation now, and this encourages waste and overuse. There is a large amount of CO2 released when it is burned and there is substantial water pollution

Oil Shale+sand The advantages of oil shale and sand include a very large potential supplies, domestiacally and in canada, it would be easily distributed throughout countries, and research is being put in place to further advance technology being used to mine these supplies now.
The dissadvantages include a much higher cost than conventional oil, a much lower energy yeild, severe land disruption, a need for water in the processing process,water pollution, and CO2 emmisions.

36. Distinguish among natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas, and synthetic natural gas. List the advantages and disadvantages of using natural gas as an energy source.

Natural gas is a fossil fuel which contains 70-90% methane, 5-15%ethane, and the rest propane and butane with a few trace chemicals mixed in.
Liquified natural gas is natural gas after the fields are tapped and propane+butane gasses are removed.
Liquified natural gas is the product of natural gas at extremely low temperatures to the point of a state change
Synthetic natural gas is an excess product from coal being turned into gas.
The advantages of using natural gas as an energy supply is that there are much more abundant supplies of it which can last up to 125 years. It also has a very high net energy yield, low cost, less air pollution and lower CO2 than alternative fuel sources, and low land use
The dissadvantages are that it, like other fossil fuels is a nonrenewable resource, there is a chance of a pipe leak in which methane could come out, it is difficult to transfer across bodies of water, it is expensive to ship, and it is often wasted due to the abundancy and the low cost.
(Lucas McCormack)
37. List and describe three types of coal. Indicate which is preferred for burning and which is most available. List and briefly describe three methods for extracting coal. List advantages and disadvantages of using coal as a fuel source.
The three types are Lignite (brown coal), Bituminous Coal (Soft coal), and Anthracite(hard coal). Anthracite is preferred because of its high heat content and low sulfur content, however Bituminous is the most available. Advantages- Large supplies, Low cost, high net energy yield, air pollution can be reduced with newer technology. Disadvantages- Very high environmental impact, High land use, High CO2 emissions, releases radioactive particles and mercury into the air. (Kiyon N.T.)

38. Briefly describe the components of a conventional nuclear reactor. List advantages and disadvantages of using conventional nuclear fission to create electricity. Be sure to consider the whole nuclear fuel cycle, including disposal of radioactive wastes, safety and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and the potential for proliferation of nuclear weapons. Components include control rods, containment shell (to keep radiation inside the chamber), a turbine that is spun due to steam produced by the heat released, and a generator that transfers the turbine spinning into electricity. Advantages- Moderate land use, Large fuel supply, emits 1/6 as much CO2 as coal, low risk of accidents. Disadvantages- High cost, low net energy yield, high environmental impact with large accidents, no solution for storage of waste, subject to terrorist attacks. (Kiyon N.T.)

39. Summarize current thinking about disposal of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes.

After more than 50 years of research, scientists still do not agree on whether there is a safe way of storing high-level radioactive waste. Some believe the long-term safe storage or disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is technically possible. Others disagree, pointing out that it is impossible to demonstrate that any method will work for 10,00-240,000 years. (Shy)

40. List and briefly describe three ways to decommission a nuclear power plant. List findings of a 1987 commission, which bring into question the credibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to safeguard the nuclear power industry.

1. Dismantle the plant after its closes and store its large volume of highly radioactive materials in a high-level, nuclear waste storage facility.
2. Install a physical barrier around the plant and set up full-time security for 30-100 years before the plant is dismantled.
3. Enclose the entire plant in a tomb that must last and be monitored for several thousand years.

Critics accuse the NRC of failing to improve the security of spent fuel rods because it would impose additional costs on utility companies and raise the cost of relying on the nuclear power fuel cycle. (Shy)

41. Describe the potential use of breeder nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as energy sources.

Breeder nuclear fission generate more nuclear fuel than they consume by converting nonfissionable uranium-238 into fissionable plutonium-239. Because breeders would use more than 99% of the uranium in ore deposits, the world's known uranium reserves would last at least 1,000 years, and perhaps several thousand years. Nuclear fusion is a nuclear change in which two isotopes of light elements, such as hydrogen, are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy in the process. Scientists hope that controlled nuclear fusion will provide an almost limitless source of high-temperature heat and electricity. There is no risk of meltdown or release of large amounts of radioactive materials from a terrorist attack and little risk from additional proliferation of nuclear weapons because bomb-grade materials are not required for fusion energy. The problem is that scientists havn't found out how to get more energy out of it than they put in.

42. List the advantages and disadvantages of improving energy efficiency so that we do more with less. Define life cycle cost and cogeneration and describe their potential for saving energy. Describe changes that can be made in industry, transportation, buildings, lights, and appliances and that would improve energy efficiency.

Improving energy efficiency means reducing energy waste. Advantages are that it prolongs fossil fuel supplies, reduces oil imports, low cost, reduces pollution and environmental degradation, buys time to phase in renewable energy, less need for military protection of Middle East oil resources, improves local economy by reducing flow of money out to pay for energy, creates local jobs. The disadvantages are that fossil fuel costs are low-priced and lack of government tax breaks for saving energy promote energy waste. The changes that can be made are to switch light bulbs to flourescent bulbs, use cogeneration or combined heat and power systems, increase fuel efficiency standards on vehicles, designing buildings that get heat from the sun, superinsulating them, and using plant covered eco-roofs.

43. List the advantages and disadvantages of using direct solar energy to heat air and water for buildings. Distinguish between active and passive solar heating. Compare the following solar technologies and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each: solar power tower, solar thermal plant, and optical solar concentrator.

44. List the advantages and disadvantages of using water in the forms of hydropower, tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal currents, and solar ponds to produce electricity.

45. List the advantages and disadvantages of using wind to produce electricity.

46. List the advantages and disadvantages of using biomass to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles. Consider burning wood, agricultural wastes, and urban wastes as well as conversion of biomass to biofuels.

47. List the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen gas as an energy source. Why is hydrogen considered a fuel and not an energy source? Describe constraints to a solar-hydrogen revolution.
(p 323) Karen Whitestone
Here is a list of the ADVANTAGES: Can be produced from plentiful water; Low environmental impact; Renewable if produced from renewable energy sources; No CO2 emissions if produced from water; Good substitute for oil; Competitive priced if environmental and social cost are included in cost comparisons; Safer than gasoline and natural gas; Nontoxic; High efficiency (45- 65%) in fuel cells.
Here is a list of the DISADVANTAGES: Not found in nature; Energy is needed to produce fuel; Negative net energy; CO2 emissions if produced from carbon- containing compounds; Nonrenewable if generated by fossil fuels of nuclear power; High costs (may eventually reduce); Will take 25- 50 years to phase in; Short driving range for current fuel- cell cars; No fuel distribution system in place; Excessive H2 leaks may deplete ozone in the atmosphere.
Chemically, Hydrogen is considered a fuel and NOT an energy source because it takes energy to produce hydrogen from water and organic compounds (“a fuel produced by using energy”). Economically, Hydrogen is not well established at refueling stations, and current fuel cell (best way to use hydrogen to produce electricity) versions are expensive.
A potential solar- hydrogen revolution, where both these sources of energy would become predominantly used, is not and will not take place in the near future because of the fantastic expense associated with each. Neither of these sources are well- subsidized by the government, which would assist a reduction of price, making them more appealing to the average consumer. Fossil- fuel based energy sources are much more heavily subsidized… The book also mentioned an article on producing hydrogen from green algae, where Tasios Melis from UC Berkeley found a way to make these algae produce bubbles of hydrogen rather than oxygen… Maybe with more research, hydrogen fuel will become more viable.

48. List the advantages and disadvantages of using geothermal energy for space heating, high-temperature industrial heating, and electricity production.

(p 321) Karen Whitestone
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY:bold text heat stored in soil, underground rocks, and fluids in the earth’s mantle. All year, the ground is about 60 degrees Fahrenheit.

For electricity production
List of the ADVANTAGES: Very high efficiency; Moderate net energy at accessible sites; lower CO2 emissions than fossil fuels; Low cost at favorable sites; Low land use; Low land disturbance; Moderate environmental impact.
List of DISADVANTAGES: Scarcity of suitable sites to develop; Depleted if used too rapidly; CO2 emissions; Moderate to high local air pollution; Noise and odor (H2S); Cost too high except at the most concentrated and accessible sources.

For high- temperature industrial heating and general space heating …( no overlap from above repeated)
Various methods of space heating are very efficient and cost effective. Geothermal heat pumps use systems of pipes underground to heat or cool (pumps the heat into ground) a building, utilizing the above- and below- ground temperature differences. Geoexchange uses buried pipes filled with fluid to move heat in and out of the ground, from nearby water sources. Deep dry steam reservoirs consist of hot water vapor, but no water droplets. Wet steam reservoirs and hot water trapped in porous rock are also sources of heat that can be used to heat homes, or turn turbines for electricity. Heat from molten rock could be used to preheat water for space heating.

Geothermal exchange is the most energy- efficient, cost- effective and environmentally clean way to heat/ cool a building, according to the EPA.

Currently, 22 countries contribute to 1% of total world Geothermal energy use for electricity; 6% of California to total CA demand.

49. Analyze the interactions of economic policy and energy resources. In particular consider the results of using free-market competition, keeping energy prices low, and keeping energy prices high.

One way to make a shift to sustainable energy resources would be to keep energy prices artificially low which would encourage the use of them over non-renewable resources. The government can give subsidies and tax breaks and create regulations regarding efficient energies. The government can also make energy prices extremely high so that people are discouraged to use/ waste energy. (Audrey Wooster!)
50. List four ways that the United States could build a more sustainable energy future.

Four ways the US can build a more sustainable energy future:
1. gradual shift from large macropower systems to smaller decentralized micropower systems
2. have more wind farms, solar cell systems, and bio-energy power plants
3. increase the fuel efficiency of cars and appliances
4. cut coal production and use by 50% by 2050 and tax oil and coal use
(Audrey Wooster!)


51. List four classes of common hazards and give two examples of each. List seven cultural hazards in order of most to least hazardous.

Cultural hazards such as smoking, unsafe working conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking, driving, etc.
Biological hazards from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites
Chemical hazards from harmful chemicals in the air, water, soil, and food such as nitrates and radon.
Physical hazards such as a fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, flood, tornado, and hurricane.

Seven cultural hazards (most to least): Pneumonia and flu, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Diarrheal diseases, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Measles.

(By the infamous Paul Yang)

52. Define toxicology. List three types of studies that contribute to our knowledge of toxicology. Distinguish between acute and chronic effects; bioaccumulation and biomagnification.

Toxicology is the study of the measure of how harmful a substance is in causing injury, illness, or death to a living organism. Three types of studies that contribute to our knowledge of toxicology include risk analysis, factors that distort the perception of risk, and actual risk. Acute effects are short term effects that doesn't last for a long time. Chronic effects are long term effects that may last a life time.

Bioaccumulation: the build-up of chemical wastes that are retained in the environment
Biomagnification: the small concentration of toxic waste in lower trophic levels that get magnified as trophic levels go up

(By the notorious Paul Yang)

53. Draw a dose-response curve and explain how it can be used. Draw graphs of two hypothetical dose-response curves: no threshold and threshold.

54. Define epidemiology. Summarize limits of toxicological research.

55. List five principal types of chemical hazards and give two examples of each.
Types of Chemical hazards:
1. Cultural hazards (smoking, poor diet, unsafe sex, poverty)
2. Biological hazards- pathogens (bacteria, diseases, infectious diseases)
3. Chemical hazards- Chemicals in water, soil, air, and food (pesticides, MH4 etc)
4. Physical hazards- (fires, floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, etc)
(audrey wooster!)
56. Distinguish between transmissible and nontransmissible diseases. Explain which occurs most in developing countries and which occurs most in developed countries. Relate an epidemiologic transition to a demographic transition.

Non-transmissible disease-caused by living organisms and doesn’t spread. Have multiple causes, which usually develop slowly (asthma, malnutrition, cardiovascular diseases)
Transmissible diseases- “infectious” diseases, which spread and interfere with your bodily functions (i.e. AIDS, chicken pox, malaria)
Transmissible diseases such as AIDS and TB occur more in developing countries where education and medical health care is very low.
Non-transmissible diseases occur more in developed countries but are usually treated very easily
Epidemiological transition- when viruses spread very quickly and extremely over the globe or a country (more uncontrollable and random). (Cause huge increase in death rate)
Demographic transition- when countries become industrialized and death rates decline while birth rates also decline. Man countries get caught in the transitional stages and shift back to pre-industrial stags as their birth rates and death rates fall. (Stages are pre-industrial, transitional, industrial, and post industrial)
(audrey wooster)
57. Describe how the hazards of smoking and sexually transmitted diseases could be reduced in the United States. List diet changes that can help prevent cancer.

Making smoking illegal, mass advertising/ campaign against smoking, slowly eliminating it out of our culture, can reduce hazards of smoking
Hazards of sexually transmitted diseases can be reduced by:
1. Shrinking number of people capable of spreading the disease
2. Concentrate on groups in society likely of infecting others
3. Provide and urge free HIV testing
4. Mass education and advertising
Diet changes to help prevent cancer
1. Eliminate smoking
2. Drink less/ monitor alcohol intake
(audrey Wooster)

58. Define risk analysis. Summarize its limitations. Compare technology reliability to human reliability. Distinguish between risk-benefit analysis and risk assessment. List seven questions risk assessors might ask.

Risk analysis: involves identifying hazards and evaluating their associated risks, ranking the risks and determining options and choices in how to reduce or eliminate the risks.
- Limitations is that it can never be 100% accurate
-Many variables are involved
Technology reliability is a little higher that human reliability and human reliability is almost impossible to predict.
System reliability= technological reliability x human reliability
Risk benefit analysis- finds risks, ranks them, and finds how to reduce or eliminate them
Risk Assessment- process of gathering data and making assumptions to estimate short/long term harmful effects for humans/ environment from exposure to particular hazards
Question asked:
1. How often do you exercise?
2. What does your diet entail?
3. Are you in the sun a lot? How often? What SPF do you apply?
4. Have you had unprotected intercourse before?
5. Do you partake in any extreme sports or hobbies? (I.e. bungee jumping, scuba diving, rock climbing)
6. Do you live in a city, suburb or rural area?
7. Do you smoke?

(audrey wooster)

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