2nd Semester Period 5

CHAPTER 9- SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY: THE SPECIES APPROACH

Let's go period 5- Mr. Cohen is watching. Check welcome page for instructions if you are having trouble making your additions. (Register, login, edit button on bottom of page.) Go APES

1. Describe the economic, medical, aesthetic, ecological, and ethical significance of wild species. Define bioethics. Distinguish between intrinsic value and instrumental value.

Intrinsic value represents the value that wild species have from being around. The human race could be extinct or never exist and wild animals would still have some value (or so the theory goes). Instrumental value is the benefit of wild species for the benefit of humans specifically. Bioethics studies the ethical controversies that come around from advances in biology and/or medicine. Think of the recent stem cell controversy as an example. Anyways, the benefits of wild species are as follows.

Economic: They can perform labor which saves human beings money. For instance, bees pollinate our plants and provide billions worth of economic services.

Medical: Animals often have adaptations of which humans are unaware which could be adapted for human benefit. For instance, sharks do not get cancer. If humans were to figure out why and develop a cancer vaccination, that would be a medical benefit of sharks.

Aesthetic: Think of that feeling you have when you are in a national park and see a flock of geese flying by. How beautiful. That's the aesthetic benefit.

Ecological: Wild species play important parts within their ecosystems! You get rid of one, especially a keystone species, the whole network might come crumbling down. That would lessen the other benefits mentioned; not a good scenario.

Ethical: This is based entirely on intrinsic value. Assumes that the extinction of wild species is wrong, we have an ethical responsibility to keep them around. We get the benefit of doing the "right" thing.

2. Distinguish between background (natural) rate of extinction and mass extinction. Evaluate if an extinction crisis currently exists. Distinguish between endangered species and threatened species. Give three examples of each.

Background rate of extinction represents the rate at which species would go extinct in the absense of any outside factors (such as human involvement, giant meteors, supervolcanoes, etc.). A mass extinction, also known as an extinction event, is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a short period, representing a much higher extinction rate than the background. An extinction crisis currently exists since the extinction rate is far above the background.

Endangered species are those at risk of becoming extinct while threatened species are those at risk of becoming endangered. The California condor, black rhino, and cheetah are all examples of endangered species. The Bay checkerspot butterfly, gray bat, and gray wolf ar all examples of threatened species.

3. List nine characteristics that make species extinction prone.
1. Large
2. Commercially valuable parts
3. Narrow distribution
4. Rare (Endemic Species found nowhere else on earth)
5. K-strategist species (few offspring, low reproductive rate)
6. Occupy a very narrow niche (Specialized niche)
7. Large territories
8. Fixed Migratory Patterns
9. Feeds at high trophic level
-Jarrett A.

4. Describe how species become extinct. List and describe eight ways that humans accelerate the extinction rate.
Extinction occurs when a species cannot adapt and successfully reproduce under new environmental conditions or when a species evolves into one or more new species.
1. Invasive species - We are introducing non-native species which compete with native species for food and shelter, and often times can completely take over a species' niche or even over-hunt existing species which have no natural predators.
2. Habitat Destruction and Fragmentation - We destroy the habitats of innumerable species through suburban sprawl, industrial expansion and deforestation, leaving species with no homes, which leads to extinctions.
3. Climate Change and Pollution - By adding dangerous pollutants to aquatic habitats such as lakes and rivers, we are damaging the biodiversity, killing many sensitive species and affecting all species related through the food web. Climate change can drastically damage important ecosystems such as coral reefs and threaten many species with premature extinction.
4. Killing Predators and Pest Control - Killing keystone species has many unintended effects on the surrounding ecosystem, and can lead to extinctions of other species as well. Killing pests can lead to the extinction of the predators of those pests.
5. Legal and Illegal trade of wildlife species - At least 2/3 of all live animals smuggled around the world die in transit.
6. Population Growth - Rising population leads to the obvious demand for more goods, especially food. We constantly need more agricultural land, which leads to the inevitable destruction of wildlife habitat, the greatest threat to wild species.
7. Rising Resource Use - Rising resource use unfortunately pushes the fate of wild species off to the side in the shadow of technological improvements and current more pressing issues.
8. Poverty - People in developing countries often have no steady source of income or food. Because of this, they cannot afford to be conscious of whether or not certain wild animals are endangered, and will jump at the chance to hunt wild animals for sale of their furs and meat or for food.
-Jarrett A.

5. List and briefly describe three approaches to protect wild species from extinction. State one advantage particular to the ecosystem approach.
-the legal approach- using laws and regulations such as the endangered species act
-the sanctuary approach- wild refuges and other protected areas such as zoos
-reconciliation ecology- involves finding ways to share the places we dominate with other species

6. Summarize protection offered to wild species by CITES and the Endangered Species Act. List some steps, which would strengthen the Endangered Species Act. Describe one way to decide which species to save.
-steps to strengthen endangered species act: 1- greatly increase funding 2- develop recovery plans quickly 4- when a species is first placed on the endangered species list create a sanctuary for it to cover the next 25-50 years

-the species effect on the environment around them

7. Describe how fish and game populations are managed in order to sustain the population. Analyze the lessons to be learned from the decline of the whaling industry.

8. List three ways individuals can help maintain wild species and preserve biodiversity.

CHAPTER 10 - FOOD, SOIL, AND PEST MANAGEMENT

9. Using Figure 10-3 on p. 208, list four types of agriculture. Compare the inputs of land, labor, capital, and fossil-fuel energy of these systems. Evaluate the green revolution. What were its successes? Its failures? Summarize major consequences of eating meat.

10. Describe the trends in world food production since 1950. Summarize food distribution problems. Define malnutrition and undernutrition. Indicate how many people on Earth suffer from these problems.

11. Describe the problems of soil erosion and desertification. Describe both world and U.S. situations and explain why most people are unaware of this problem. Describe the problems of salinization and waterlogging of soils and how they can be controlled.
Soil erosion is a problem because erosion causes a loss in soil fertility, the eroded soil ends up in aquatic ecosystems, it then can pollute the water, kill fish, and clog boat channels, reservoirs, and lakes. Desertification - when the productive potential of drylands falls by 10% or more. This is a problem because land is less fertile after acdrought and topsoil-degrading human activities.
Moderate desertification is a problem in much of central U.S. (with severe desertification in the southwest and very severe desertification in much of California.) Throughout the world, desertification is a problem as well: a third of the world's land and 70% of drylands suffer from desertification. Most people are unaware of this problem because they do not live on farms and ranches who see erosion and desertification first hand.
Salinization is a problem because of salt buildup in soil: if the salt concentration becomes higher than a crops range of tolerance, then crops will not be able to grow in that soil. Since soil salinization is a result of salt residues evaporating from irrigation water and being deposited in the soil, salinization can be controlled by reducing irrigation.
Waterlogging of soils is another problem associated with over-watering crops, because the saline water table may rise to the level of the roots of the crops, eventually killing them. Waterlogging can also be easily avoided. -Maria Cacciatore

12. Define soil conservation. List some ways to approach the problem of soil erosion. Be sure to distinguish between conventional-tillage and conservation-tillage farming. Describe techniques to maintain soil fertility. Distinguish between organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Soil conservation is used to reduce soil erosion, prevent depletion of soil nutrients, and restore nutrients previously lost by erosion, leaching, and excessive crop harvesting. There are different ways to avoid soil erosion: terracing, contour farming, strip farming, cover crops, agroforestry (alley cropping), and shelterbelts (windbreaks).
Conventional-tillage farming is the traditional method of tilling the soil (loosening and turning over the topsoil) before planting crops. This method disturbs the soil as little as possible to plant crops, to reduce soil erosion. To maintain soil fertility, fertilizers can be added to the soil. Organic fertilizers come from plant or animal materials, like manure and compost, whereas inorganic fertilizers are are produced in factories. Inorganic fertilizers replace depleted nutrients, but not organic matter.
Crop rotation may also be used in fields to prevent soil and nutrient depletion by crops such as corn and tobacco. For example, legumes may be planted every other year to add nitrogen to the soil. -Maria Cacciatore

13. List twelve environmental effects of agriculture. Rank what you feel are the top three. Support your answer.

Soil erosion, Desertification, Soil salinization, Waterlogging, Aquifer depletion, Overgrazing, Overfishing, Loss of biodiversity, Loss of prime cropland, Pesticide pollution, Deforestation, Eutrophication of lakes.

The three most threatening are aquifer depletion, loss of prime cropland, and deforestation because they may cause huge problems in future food production.
(Christine Donaldson)

14. Describe trends in the world fish catch since 1950. Assess the potential for increasing the annual fish catch. Evaluate the potential of fish farming and fish ranching for increasing fish production.

Since 1950 the per capita catch has been declining and may continue to fall due to overfishing, pollution, habitat loss, and population growth. However, they could be recovered with careful management and fish farming/fish ranching methods.
(Christine Donaldson)

15. Assess the pros and cons of agricultural subsidies and international food relief. Describe strategies that you feel would be most sustainable.
-PROS: subsidies/tax breaks keep farmers in business and encourage them to increase food production. International relief can provide much-needed food to those who need it most, preventing starvation and disease.
-CONS: Subsidies can lead to overproduction, which can depress food prices. This, along with free or cheap food aid, can reduce the financial incentive for farmers in developing countries to increase domestic food production.
Sustainable strategies include using subsidies as rewards for farmers who practice sustainable agricultural methods.
(ND)
16. What is a pesticide? Distinguish between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum agents.
Pesticides are chemicals that kill or control populations of organisms we consider undesirable. Broad-spectrum agents are toxic to many species, while narrow-spectrum agents are effective against a narrowly defined group of organisms. (ND)
17. Make a case for using pesticides. List three encouraging developments in pesticide production. List the characteristics of the ideal pesticide.
For nearly 225 million years plants have been naturally producing pesticides to ward off pests. Pesticides have many beneficial components: They save human lives by killing insects that carry diseases, they have increased global food supplies by keeping pests from destroying more than the average 55% of crops lost due to pesticides each year, every dollar spent on pesticides earns a farmer $4 in profits, they work faster and better than any other alternatives, when used they have very little effect on human health in comparison to their benefits, newer pesticides are safer and more effective than the older ones, and many of the new pesticides are used a lower rates compared to older ones. The ideal pesticide would kill only the target pest, not cause genetic resistance in the target organism, disappear or break down into harmless chemicals after doing its job, and be more cost-effective than doing nothing. Mose F.

18. Describe the consequences of relying heavily on pesticides. Summarize threats to wildlife and the human population.
There are also many disadvantages to using synthetic pesticides. They accelerate the development of genetic resistance to pesticides by pest organisms, some insecticides kill natural predators and parasites that help control the populations of pest species, pesticides do not stay put, some pesticides harm wildlife causing about 20% of the honeybee population to be killed and damaging another 15% as well as killing 67 million birds a year and 6-14 million fish a year, and some pesticides threaten human health poisoning 3 million people worldwide (most in developing countries) and killing 400,000 people a year (only 25 in the U.S.) But these numbers are often speculated to be underestimating the real consequences of pesticides. Mose F.

19. List and briefly describe seven alternative pest management strategies.
-A variety of cultivation practices can be employed to fake out pest species. Examples include rotating the types of crops planted in a field each year, adjusting planting times so major insect pests either starve or get eaten by their natural predators, and growing crops in areas where their major pests do not exist.
-Farmers can also increase the use of polyculture, which uses plant diversity to reduce losses to pests.
-Genetic engineering can be used to speed up the development of pest and disease resistant crop strains.
- We can increase the use of biological control by importing natural predators, parasites, and disease-causing bacteria and viruses to help regulate pest populations. This approach is non toxic to other species, minimizes genetic resistance and can save large amounts of money.
- Sex attractants, pheromones, can lure pests into traps or attract their natural predators into crop fields. These chemicals attract only one species, work in trace amounts, have little chance of causing genetic resistance, and are not harmful to nontarget species.
- We can use hormones that disrupt an insect’s normal life cycle thereby preventing it from reaching maturity and reproducing. Insect hormones have the same advantages as sex attractants. But they take weeks to kill an insect, often are ineffective with large infestations of insects and sometimes break down before they can act.
- Some farmers have controlled certain insect pests by spraying them with hot water.
- An ecological approach to pest control uses an integrated mix of cultivation and biological methods, and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides as a last resort. This is called integrated pest management.
-Jon Fusco

CHAPTER 11 - WATER AND WATER POLLUTION

20. Briefly describe Earth’s water supply. Compare amounts of saltwater and fresh water. Compare amounts of frozen fresh water and water available for human use. Define watershed and groundwater.
-Water covers about 71% of the Earth’s surface. Only a tiny fraction of the planet’s abundant water supply is readily available to us as fresh water. If the world’s water supply amounted to only 100 liters, our usable supply of fresh water would be only about 0.014 liters, or 2.5 teaspoons. Oceans andsaline lakes make up 97.4% of all Earth’s water while fresh water only makes up 2.6%. From the fresh water .592% comes from Groundwater and 1.984% comes from Ice caps and glaciers. The region from which surface water drains into a river, lake, wetland, or other body of water is called its watershed or drainage basin. Some precipitation infiltrates the ground and percolates downward through voids in soil and rock. The water in these spaces is called groundwater and is one of our most important sources of fresh water.
-Jon Fusco
21. List four causes of water scarcity and five methods to increase water supply. State four ways to prevent unnecessary water waste.
The four causes of water scarcity are: a dry climate, too many people using the reliable supply of water, poverty, and geographical distance from water sources. Dry climate and too many people using the water source are the main two causes.

In order to increase the water supply, we can build dams and reservoirs to store runoff for release as needed, bring in surface water from another area, withdraw groundwater and convert salt water to fresh water, import food to reduce water use in growing crops and raising livestock, and reduce water waste.

Methods for reducing water waste include: fixing water storage/transport systems to prevent waste through evaporation, leaks, and other losses, stop undercharging water, improving irrigation systems/using more efficient irrigation systems, and recycle/reuse water to do things like flush the toilet (grey water)
-Erin G.

22. Define floodplain. Describe the significance of the problem of flooding. List four ways to reduce the problem of flooding. Evaluate the water supply problems of your locality. Do you have too much, not enough, or just right?
A floodplain is the area into which water spills from a stream or river when it overflows its normal channel. Floodplains have soil that is great for agriculture, so people often settle down in floodplains, but they are obviously at risk for flooding. Floods are natural phenomena that help the environment greatly. Unfortunately, each year floods kill thousands of people and cause tens of billions of dollars in property damage. Human activities have contributed to the sharp rise in flood deaths and damages since the 1960s.

There are several ways to reduce the problem of flooding, including straightening and deepening streams (called channelization), building levees or floodwalls along the sides of streams, preserve existing wetlands and restore degraded wetlands, and identifying and managing floodplains (the precautionary principle). But remember: sooner or later the river always wins.
-Erin G.

23. List nine common types of water pollutants and give one example of each. Distinguish between point and non-point sources of pollution. Provide examples.
1. Infectious agents: bacteria
2. Oxygen Demanding Wastes: animal manure
3. Inorganic Chemicals: water-soluble salts like NaCl
4. Organic Chemicals: gasoline
5. Plant Nutrients: water soluble compounds containing nitrate, phosphate, and ammonium
6. Sediment: soil
7. Radioactive Materials: radioactive isotopes of iodine, radon, uranium, cesium, and thorium
8. Heat (Thermal Pollution): excessive heat from electric power plants
-Point-Source Pollutants: discharge pollutants at specific locations through drain pipes, ditches, or sewer lines into bodies of surface water EX: factories
-Non-point Source Pollutants: scattered and diffused and cannot be traced to any single sight of discharge EX: runoff of chemicals into surface water from cropland

24. Briefly explain the differences among streams, lakes, groundwater, and oceans that vary in their vulnerability to pollution. Draw an oxygen sag curve to illustrate what happens to dissolved oxygen levels in streams below points where degradable oxygen-demanding wastes are added.
Streams: Flowing streams can recover from moderate levels of degradable water pollutants with the use of dilution and biodegredation if their flows are not reduced (A picture of an oxygen sag curve is on pg. 256 in our text book)
Lakes: Dilution of pollution in lakes is less effective than in streams because most lake water isnot mixed well and has little flow
Groundwater: Can become contaminated with variety of chemicals because it can't effectively cleanse itself and dilute and disperse pollutants
Oceans: If not overloaded, oceans can disperse and break down large quantities of degradable pollutants

25. Define cultural eutrophication. List three ways to reduce cultural eutrophication. Compare the effectiveness of pollution control and pollution prevention strategies.
Cultural Eutrophication- overnourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization, and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants.(Note that eutrophication is the physical, chemical, and biological changes that take place after a lake, estuary, or slow-flowing stream receives inputs of plant nutrients)
Three ways to reduce cultural eutrophication:
1. Use advanced (but expensive) waste treatment to remove nitrates and phosphates before wastewater enters lakes
2. Ban/limit the use of phosphates in household detergents and other cleaning agents
3. Employ soil conservation and land-use control to reduce nutrient runoff
Pollution Control vs Pollution Prevention:
Pollution prevention is more effective and usually cheaper in the long run than cleanup.

26. Describe at least three strategies to reduce nonpoint-source pollution. Briefly describe the Clean Water Act. State ways it could be strengthened.
Three Strategies to Reduce Nonpoint-Source Pollution:
1. Reduce soil erosion by keeping cropland covered with vegetation and by reforesting critical watersheds.
2. Reduce the amount of fertilizer that runs off into surface waters and leaches into aquifers 3. Applying pesticides only when needed and relying more on integrated pest management to reduce pesticide runoff
The Clean Water Act(1972)- most US cities have combined primary and secondary sewage treatment plants. The number of Americans served by community water systems that met federal health standards increased from 79% to 94%, the percentage of US fishable streams increased from 36% to 60%, 1.1 billion metric tons of topsoil has been saved from agricultural runoff, and annual wetland losses has decreased by 80% since 1974.
Ways to Strenghten the Clean Water Act:
- Increase funding and authority to control nonpoint sources of pollution
- Upgrade the ocnputer system for monitoring complaince with the law
- Strengthen programs to prevent and control toxic water pollution
- Expand the rights of citizens to bring lawsuits to ensure that water pollution law are enforced
- Higher standards for wetland restoration
- Create new wetlands before filling any natural wetlands

27. Briefly describe and distinguish among primary, secondary, and advanced sewage treatment. Summarize one natural approach to water purification. Describe how drinking water is protected and purified.
The primary sewage is a physical process that uses screans and a grit tank to remove large suspended objects.
The secondary sewage is a biological process where aeorobic bacteria remove waste.
The advanced sewage is a combination of both primary and secondary.
Natural approaches are man man sewage systems that purify water.
Drinking water is protected and purified in a acquifers, and transported through pipes that are regulated. Centralized water treatment plants can provide safe drinking water.

28. List things individuals can do to maintain water supply and quality.

Individuals maintain water supply and quality by preserving water! We can also join grassroots organizations to support and controll preventing and reducing water pollution. We can find substitutes for toxic pollutants. We can reduce nonpoint runoff. We can reduce resource waste.

CHAPTER 12 - GEOLOGY AND NONRENEWABLE MINERALS

29. Briefly describe the layers of the Earth’s interior. Distinguish three different tectonic plate boundaries and the geologic features often found at each. Explain how this knowledge is significant for understanding mineral deposits and evolution.

30. List and define three broad classes of rock. Briefly describe the rock cycle and indicate interrelationships among these classes.

31. Distinguish between surface and subsurface mining. Briefly describe three types of surface mining.

32. Distinguish between mineral resources and mineral reserves. Draw a hypothetical depletion curve. Project how this curve would be affected by the following changes in assumptions: (a) recycling of the resource is increased, (b) discoveries of new deposits of the resource are made, (c) prices rise sharply, (d) a substitute for the resource is found.

33. Summarize the environmental impacts of extracting, processing, and using mineral resources. Evaluate the impact of the U.S. 1872 Mining Law.
Environmental impacts: takes large amounts of energy, causes land disturbance, soil erosion, air and water pollution, health hazards.
U.S. 1872 Mining Law: gave people and corporations the right to assume ownership of public land to mine. Later, taxpayers had to clean up the abandoned mining sites. Toxic chemicals had also been released and damaged the land.
-Britney Lee

CHAPTER 13 - ENERGY

34. How much of the total energy used to heat the Earth and Earth’s buildings comes from commercial energy? List five key questions to ask about each energy alternative to evaluate energy resources. Define net energy and state its significance in evaluating energy resources.
1% of the energy we use to heat the Earth and Earth's buildings comes from commercial energy. Most of the commercial energy comes from nonrenewable mineral resources, like fossil fuels. The remaining 99% comes from the sun.
Questions to ask about each energy alternative:
1. How much energy resource is likely to be available in the near future, the next 15-25 years, and the long term, the next 25-50 years.
2. What is the net energy yield for the resource?
3. How much will it cost to develop, phase in, and use the resource?
4. What government research and development subsidies and tax breaks will be used to help develop the resources?
5. How will extracting, transporting, and using the resource affect the environment, human health, and the earth's climate? Should these harmful costs be included in the market price of the energy resouce?
Net energy: total amount of enerty available from an energy resource minus the energy needed to find, extract, process, and get that energy to consumers. It's the usable amount of high quality energy available from a given quantity of resource.
-Britney Lee

35. List the advantages and disadvantages of using conventional oil, oil from oil shale, and oil from tar sands to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles.
The advantages for using conventional oil are that there is an ample supply for 42-93 years, low cost because of high subsidies, high net energy yield, easily transported within and between countries, low land use, the technology is well developed, and efficient distribution system.
The disadvantages are we need to find a substitute withing 50 years, artificially low prices encourage waste and discourages search for alternatives, air pollution when burned, releases CO2 when burned, moderate water pollution.

The advantages of oil from oil shale and oild sand are moderate costs (oil sand), large potential supplies, especially oil sands in Canada, easily transported within and between countries, efficient distribution system in place, and technology is well developed.

The disadvantages are high cost (oil shale), low net energy yield, large amount of water needed for processing, severe land disruption from surface mining, water pollution from mining residues, air pollution when burned, Co2 emissions when burned. -Andrew Logan

36. Distinguish among natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas, and synthetic natural gas. List the advantages and disadvantages of using natural gas as an energy source.

Natural gas is a mixture of 50-90% by volume of methane (CH4), the simplest hydrocarbon. It also contains smaller amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethane(C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), and small amounts of highly toxic hydrogen sulfide.

Liquefied petroleum gas is the product of natural gas fields being tapped and propane and butane gases are liquefied and removed.

Liquefied natural gas is the product of natural gas at very low temperatures being converted into liquefied natural gas.

Synthetic natural gas is a product of solid coal being converted into a gas by coal gasification.

The advantages of using natural gas as a natural energy source are there is a supply that can last 125 years, high net energy yield, low cost due to huge subsidies, less air pollution than other fossil fuels, lower CO2 emissions than other fossil fuels, moderate environmental impact, easily transported by pipeline, low land use, good fuel for fuel cells and gas turbines.

The disadvantages of using natural gas as a natural energy source are it is a nonrenewable resource, releases CO2 when burned, methane can leak from pipes, difficult to transfer from one country to another, shipped across oceans as highly explosive LNG, sometimes burned off and wasted at wells because of low prices, and it requieres pipelines.- Andrew Logan

37. List and describe three types of coal. Indicate which is preferred for burning and which is most available. List and briefly describe three methods for extracting coal. List advantages and disadvantages of using coal as a fuel source.

The three different types of coal are Lignite (brown coal), Bituminous (soft coal), and Anthracite (hard coal). Each level of coal is created with the increase in heat, pressure, and carbon contenct and lower moisture content. Anthracite coal is mostly preferred for burning becuase of high heat content and low sulfur content, but unfortunatly there isn't a lot available. Bituminous coal is the most common coal and can be found in large quantities.

Three ways of extracting coal are:
-Countour strip mining: form of surface mining used on hilly or mountainous terrain. A power shovel cuts a series of terraces into the side of a hill. An earthmover removes the overburden, and a power shovel extracts the coal. The overburden from each new terrace is dumped onto the one below
-Surface mining: removing soil, subsoil, and other strata and then extracting a mineral deposit found fairly close to the earth's surface
-Subsurface mining: extraction of a metal ore or fuel resource such as coal from a deep underground deposit

Advantages:
-ample supplies
-high net energy yield
-low cost (with huge subsidies)
-well-developed mining and combustion technology
-air pollution can be reduced with improved technology

Disadvantages:
-very high environmental impact
-severe land disturbance, air pollution, and water pollution
-high land use (including mining)
-severe threat to human health
-High CO2 emissions when burned
-releases radioactive particles and toxic mercury into the air

38. Briefly describe the components of a conventional nuclear reactor. List advantages and disadvantages of using conventional nuclear fission to create electricity. Be sure to consider the whole nuclear fuel cycle, including disposal of radioactive wastes, safety and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and the potential for proliferation of nuclear weapons.

In a conventional nuclear reactor CONTROL RODS move in and out of the reactor core to absorb neutrons, regulating the rate of fission and amount of power produced; a COOLANT, usually water, circulates in the reactor's core to remove heat and keep everything from melting and also to produce steam to create electricity; a CONTAINMENT VESSEL surrounds the reactor core and it is to keep radioactive materials from escaping into the atmosphere just in case of and explosion or a meltdown within the reactor also to protect the reactor from outside forces; and a WATER-FILLED PPOL or DRY CASKS are used to contain the highly radioactive used up fuel rodds when the reactor is refuled.

Advantages:
-large fuel supply
-low environmental impact (without accidents)
-emits 1/6 as much CO2 as coal
-moderate land disruption and water pollution (without accidents)
-moderate land use
-low risk of accidents because of multiple safety systesm

Disadvantages:
-high cost even with large subsidies
-low net energy yield
-high environmental impact (with major accidents)
-catastrophic accidents can happen
-no widely acceptable solution for long-term storage of radioactive wastes and and decommissioning worn-out plants
-subject to terrorist attacks
-spreads knowledge and technology for building nuclear weapons

39. Summarize current thinking about disposal of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes.

40. List and briefly describe three ways to decommission a nuclear power plant. List findings of a 1987 commission, which bring into question the credibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to safeguard the nuclear power industry.

41. Describe the potential use of breeder nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as energy sources.

42. List the advantages and disadvantages of improving energy efficiency so that we do more with less. Define life cycle cost and cogeneration and describe their potential for saving energy. Describe changes that can be made in industry, transportation, buildings, lights, and appliances and that would improve energy efficiency.

43. List the advantages and disadvantages of using direct solar energy to heat air and water for buildings. Distinguish between active and passive solar heating. Compare the following solar technologies and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each: solar power tower, solar thermal plant, and optical solar concentrator.

44. List the advantages and disadvantages of using water in the forms of hydropower, tidal power, wave power, ocean thermal currents, and solar ponds to produce electricity.

45. List the advantages and disadvantages of using wind to produce electricity.
Advantages: Moderate to high net energy, high effieciency, low electricity costs, very low environmental costs, no CO2 emissions, quick construction, can be built in the sea, land below turbines can be used for farming, and electritricity formed by turbines could be used to make hydrogen fuel cells.
Disadvantages: Steady winds are needed, backup systems needed when there isn't enough wind, high land use, visual pollution, noisy, interfere with bird migration, and could kill birds.

46. List the advantages and disadvantages of using biomass to heat space and water, produce electricity, and propel vehicles. Consider burning wood, agricultural wastes, and urban wastes as well as conversion of biomass to biofuels.
Advantages: Can be used to heat homes and in cooking, and is available in developing countries. There is a potentially large supply, is moderately cheap, and there is no net CO2 yield if used sustainably. It can convert wastes into power. Can be used to porpoel vehicles if converted to ethanol, methanol, or biogas.
Disadvantages: If used it takes up crop lands and destroys habitats, and could cause soil erosion. It emmits CO2 when burned, and can be a nonrenewable resource if not managed correctly. Biofuels that it makes, like ethanol, still emmit CO2, have high costs, take up lnad to produce, and have shorter driving ranges.

47. List the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen gas as an energy source. Why is hydrogen considered a fuel and not an energy source? Describe constraints to a solar-hydrogen revolution.

Advantages:
-can be produced from plentiful water
-low environmental impact
-renewable if produced form renewable resources
-no CO2 emissions if produced from water
-god substitute for oil
-easier to store than electricity
-nontoxic
-high efficiency in fuel cells

Disadvantages:
-not found in nature
-energy is needed to produce fuel
-negative net energy
-high costs
-will take 25-50 years to phase in
-short driving range for current fuel cell cars
-excessive H2 leaks may deplete ozone in atmosphere

Hydrogen is not a source of energy- it is a fuel produced by using energy!!

48. List the advantages and disadvantages of using geothermal energy for space heating, high-temperature industrial heating, and electricity production.

Advantages:
-very high efficiency
-moderate net energy at accesible sites
-lower co2 emissions than fossil fuels
-low land us
-low land distribution
-,pderate environmental impact

Disadvantages:
-scarcity of suitable sites
-depleted if used too rapidly
-CO2 emissions
-moderate to high air pollution
-noise and odor
-cost too high except at most concentrated and accessible sources

49. Analyze the interactions of economic policy and energy resources. In particular consider the results of using free-market competition, keeping energy prices low, and keeping energy prices high.

50. List four ways that the United States could build a more sustainable energy future.

CHAPTER 14 -RISK, HUMAN HEALTH, AND TOXICOLOGY

51. List four classes of common hazards and give two examples of each. List seven cultural hazards in order of most to least hazardous.
Cultural hazards- smoking, unsafe woring conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking,driving, unsafe sex, poverty
Biological hazards- from pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) that cause infectious disease
Chemical hazards- from harmful chemicals in the air, water, soil, and food
Physical hazards- such as a fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, flood, tornado, and hurricane

Seven deadliest infectious diseases:
Pneumonia and flu
HIV/AIDS
Malaria
Diarrheal diseases
Tuberculosis
Hepatitis B
Measles
~Carly W.

52. Define toxicology. List three types of studies that contribute to our knowledge of toxicology. Distinguish between acute and chronic effects; bioaccumulation and biomagnification.
Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on health.

Distinguish between acute and chronic effects; bioaccumulation and biomagnification.**
Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on health.

An acute effect is an immediate or rapid harmful reaction to an exposure- ranging from dizziness to death where a chronic effect is a permanent or long lasting consequence, like liver damage, from exposure to a single dose or to repeated lower doses of a harmful substance.

53. Draw a dose-response curve and explain how it can be used. Draw graphs of two hypothetical dose-response curves: no threshold and threshold.
Dose response curves show the Dose vs percentage of a population killed by a given dose
"is central to determining "safe" and "hazardous" levels and dosages for drugs"

54. Define epidemiology. Summarize limits of toxicological research.
Epidemiology - the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations
Three Limits of toxicological research
-Not enough people have been exposed to high levels of a toxic agent to compare data
-Linking a symptom with the exact toxin is hard because people are exposed to many toxins in their life and their sensitivity toward toxins can differ
-Can use epidemiology to evaluate hazards in chemicals that people have not been exposed to
steven r.
55. List five principal types of chemical hazards and give two examples of each.

56. Distinguish between transmissible and nontransmissible diseases. Explain which occurs most in developing countries and which occurs most in developed countries. Relate an epidemiologic transition to a demographic transition.

57. Describe how the hazards of smoking and sexually transmitted diseases could be reduced in the United States. List diet changes that can help prevent cancer.

58. Define risk analysis. Summarize its limitations. Compare technology reliability to human reliability. Distinguish between risk-benefit analysis and risk assessment. List seven questions risk assessors might ask.

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License