Chapter 5 Answers

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Chap 5 Climate and Biodiversity
1. Climate is a regions general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions over a long period of time where as weather is an area’s short term temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and other physical conditions of the lower atmosphere over a short period of time. (Mose Farber Period 5)

2. 5 factors that contribute to global air-circulation patterns: Weather: short term physical conditions of lower atmosphere Climate: a region’s general patter of atmospheric conditions over a long time. Uneven heating of the earth’s surface: heated more at equator Rotation of earth on its axis: equator region moves faster and air masses moving north and south are deflected east and west. (prevailing winds). Properties of air, water, and land: this effects distribution of heat and creates 6 convection cells in troposphere

3. Greenhouse effect: heat is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the troposphere and warms the earth. Without this effect, the earth would be cold and lifeless. Greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

4. Microclimates: Mountain Rain Shadow Effect: the windward side of mountains is cooled by moist air that rises and releases moisture. The leeward side of the mtn. is warmed by air that descends has little moisture. Cities: Concrete absorbs heat while motor vehicles and ac systems release heat and pollution. As a result, cities have haze, smog, higher temps, and lower wind speeds.

5. Different climates have different ave temp and precip, and support diferent communities of organism. Succulent plants are found in deserts, esp. temperate desserts. Broadleaf evergreen plants are found in the rainforest. Broadleaf deciduous trees are found in temperate deciduous forests. Coniferous evergreen trees are found in boreal/taiga forests.

6. Adaptations of plants/animals in deserts, grasslands and forests:
Qualities of Chaparral ecosystem:
Major forests: rainforest, deciduous forest, coniferous forest

7. Biodiversity is greatest in rainforest, smallest in coniferous.

8. Mountains are “islands of biodiversity” surrounded by a sea of lower-elevation landscapes transformed by human activities. They contain most of the world’s forests which are habitats for much of our planet’s terrestrial biodiversity. There are often endemic species found nowhere else.

9. The euphotic zone of the open sea is the brightly lit upper zone with warm temps and little salt. The bathyal zone is the dimly lit middle zone with medium temps and salt. The abyssal zone is lowest, darkest, coldest, and has the most salt.

10. Oceans take up 71% of the area on earth and contain 250,000 of earth's species. They moderate climates, absorb CO2, cycle nutrients, Treat and dilute waste, Reduce storm impact, provide habitats for marine and terrestrial species, contain genetic resources, biodiversity, and scientific information. (Mose Farber Period 5)

11. Coral reefs are among the earth’s most diverse and productive ecosystems and provide homes for ¼ of all marine species. They remove co2 from atmosphere, act as natural barriers that protect 15% of world’s coastlines from storms, and support 2/3 fish species. Human activities are killing the reefs, esp global warming. If they die, sea food will not be available.

12. Inland wetlands absorb and store excess water from storms and provide a variety of wildlife
habitats. Coastal wetlands are land areas covered with water all or part of the year, and are some of the most productive ecosystems.

13. Lake layers Littoral: top layer that consists of shallow sunlit waters near the shore to the depth at which rooted plants stop growing. Has high biodiversity. Limnetic: the open, sunlit water surface away from the shore that extends to the depth penetrated by sunlight. It produces the food and oxygen that support most of lakes consumers. Profundal: the deep, open water where it is too dark for photosynthesis. Oxy levels are low and temps are low. Benthic: bottom layer of lake that consist mainly of decomposers, detritus feeders, detritus nutrients.

Oligotrophic lake: lake with too little nutrients Eutrophic lake: lake with too much nutrients

14. Watershed: the land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream. The 3 zones of a river system are the source zone, and transition zone, and the floodplain zone.

Christine Donaldson (period 5)

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