Chapter 7 Answers


1. Define birth rate, death rate, emigration rate, and immigration rate. Write an equation to mathematically describe the relationship between these rates and the rate of population change.

Birth rate is live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.
Death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.
Immigration is migration of people into a country or area to take up permanent residence.
Emigration is migration of people out of a country who leave their permanent residence.

(Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration) = Population Change in a given year

2. Define fertility rate. Describe how fertility rate affects population growth. List at least five factors that affect birth rate and five factors that affect death rate.

Fertility rate is the number of births that occur to an individual woman or in a population. There are two types: replacement-level fertility (number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves) and total fertility rate (the average number of children a woman typically has during her reproductive years.

Birth rate: child labor, cost of raising & educating child, availability of pension system, urbanization, average age of marriage, employment opportunities

Death rate: Food supply, nutrition, medicine, sanitation, hygiene, water supplies.

3. Compare rates of population growth in developed and developing countries. Explain the differences you find. Briefly describe the state of teenage pregnancy in the United States.

Developing countries have higher rates of population growth due to lack in birth control and the need for children for labor, as well as for them to take care of them when they grow old. Developed countries tend to face lower growth rates and have more stable populations with better education and available birth control. In the United States, teenage pregnancy is on the decline, over the last several years.

4. Using population age structure diagrams, explain how the age structure of a country creates population growth momentum. Summarize social impacts resulting from declining populations.

The trends shown in the pre-productive, reproductive, and post-reproductive categories determines rapid, slow, zero, and negative population growth rates.

From declining population can cause severe social and economic problems, labor, and social security problems.

5. List five approaches to slowing human population growth. List the four stages of the demographic transition. Briefly describe the controversies that surround controlling population size through controlling migration and family planning.

1. Women Education 2. Family Planning 3. Improved health care 4. Reduce poverty 5. Empowering Women

Demographic transitions 1. Pre-industrial 2. Transitional 3. Industrial 4. Post industrial

The controversies that surround the decreasing of population size is that most developing countries use the children as workers, and need them to take care of them when they are older. Many countries don’t approve many immigrants a year so it hard for people to get to other countries.

6. Summarize India and China’s experiences. Describe the three major shifts in population distribution in U.S. History

India: Poor family planning of family planning programs, Bureaucratic inefficiency, low status of women, extreme poverty

China: Economic incentives, free medical care for participants, gender imbalance, and preferential treatment for participants, free sterilization for people,

The three major shifts in U.S. history is people migrated from rural areas to large central cities. Second are many people migrating from large central cities to suburbs and smaller cities. Third many people migrated from the North and East to the South and West. The last one is some people have migrated from urban and suburban areas back to rural areas.

7. List seven resource and environmental problems faced by urban areas. Briefly describe the process ecological land-use planning.

1.The proportion of the global population living in urban areas is increasing 2. the number of large cities is mushrooming 3. the urban population is increasing rapidly in developing countries 4. urban growth is much slower in developed countries than in developing countries 5. Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized as more poor people migrate from rural to urban areas, mostly in developing countries 6. There are squatter settlements and shantytowns 7. slums

As the developing countries grow and sprawl outwards, separate urban areas may merge to form megalopolis. Peopling in developing countries are projected to reach 84%. Three-fourths of Americans live in 271 metropolitan areas( cities with at least 50,000 people)

8. Evaluate the costs and benefits of the automobile on U.S. Society. List three alternatives forms of transportation to the car, and evaluate the costs and benefits of each.

Motor vehicles provide personal benefits and help fuel economies, but also have killed many people, pollute the air, promote urban sprawl. They lead time and gas wasting traffic jams.

1. Bicycles are affordable. Produce no pollution, quiet, require little parking space, easy to maneuver in traffic, take few resources to make, very energy efficient, provide exercise
2. Mass Transit more energy efficient than cars, produce less air pollution than cars, requires less land than roads and parking areas for cars, cause fewer injuries and deaths than cars, reduces car congestion in cities
3. Buses more flexible than rail system, can be rerouted as needed, cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system, can greatly reduce car and pollution

( By Ranae Jabri, 5th Period, APES)

Chapter 7 Exam Review

1. Birth Rate (crude birth rate): number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.

Death rate (crude death rate): number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.

Emigration rate: rate at which people are leaving a country
Immigration rate: rate at which people are entering a country

Population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Death + Emigration).

Rule of 70 = 70/ % growth rate = doubling time in years

2. Fertility rate: number of births that occur to an individual woman or in a population.
There is : replacement-level fertility: number of children she has to have to replace her self and husband. (2.2)
Total fertility rate (TFR): average number of children woman has typically.
5 factors that affect birth rate:
1. Cost of raising and educating children
2. educational and employment opportunities for women
3. infant deaths
4. marriage age
5. availability of contraceptives and abortions

5 factors that affect death rate:
2. better nutrition
3. advances in medicine
4. improved sanitation and personal hygiene
5. safer water supplies

3. The population growth of developed countries is only around 0.1%. The population growth of developing countries is 1.5 %. The average is 1.2% since the 97% of the growth is occurring in developing countries.
Population growth in the US has slowed, but fertility is still US has the highest teenage birth rate of any developed country. This has dropped 40% though.

5. Demographic transition. As countries become industrialized, first their death rates and then their birth rates decline. This transition has 4 stages: preindustrial, transitional, industrial, postindustrial.

( By Ranae Jabri, 5th Period, APES)

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